The ‘℮’ symbol, or the ‘e-mark’ is a symbol you will see on packaging such as tins or packets in Europe. Millions of us will see this symbol every day, but what does it actually mean?
The raison d’etre for the e-mark comes from the problem of selling goods to the public. We would all like to think that we are getting what we pay for, but does that mean we should always get what we pay for?
Well, if you use the ℮-mark, then no. And yes if you don’t. So you use the ℮-mark. By doing so, some of us are short-changed, but, on average, we shouldn’t be.
The e-mark was introduced in 1976 by the legislation known by the snappy title of ‘Council Directive 76/211/EEC of 20 January 1976 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the making-up by weight or by volume of certain prepackaged products’.
This sets out a nominal value of a product. This means that, on average, we should not receive less than the value stated before the e-mark. But we would be really annoyed if we received, say, nothing, and someone else received twice the nominal amount. So, the concept of tolerable negative error was introduced at the same time, to set out the minimum legal amount that each packet or tin or container should contain. The idea is that only a few containers can weigh less than the declared value less the tolerable negative error (but none can be twice the tolerable negative error… that would be, well, intolerable).
In packets from 5 grams to 10 kilogrammes, the tolerable negative error varies from 9% (quite a lot) to 1.5% (not such a lot), the rationale being that it is easier to measure larger values with greater accuracy.
Excruciating detail can be found in The Weights and Measures (Packaged Goods) Regulations 2006. It is interesting to note that the HTML version of the Regulations contain illegible formulae:
I leave it as an exercise for the lawyer to determine whether this would be a valid defence in criminal proceedings.